Elementa follows Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers as our primary style guide and highly recommend that authors consult it. The following guidelines, based on the CSE Manual, are intended to assist you in formatting references accurately and consistently.
Elementa employs the name-year (or “Harvard”) system of in-text references, in which the author’s surname and year of publication are cited in the text of your work, enclosed in parentheses. The reference list (appearing at the end of the article) should be in alphabetical order by author. Published works, works accepted for publication, and citable datasets should appear in the reference list. Mentions of unpublished work should be cited parenthetically within the main text of the article as personal communications (see Unpublished Material below).
Anglia Ruskin University Library has produced a very useful Guide to the Harvard System of Referencing, which we encourage you to consult.
In-text references should appear in parentheses, with the first author’s name followed by a comma, and date of publication. For works with 3 or more authors, the first author’s name should be followed by “et al.” Semicolons should be used to separate multiple references within one parenthetical element.
Example (single author):
… to minimize environmental degradation (Pew, 2013).
Example (two authors):
… ice-free Northwest Passage (Smith and Stephenson, 2013), a northern gateway ….
Example (more than three authors):
… production sites in Alberta, Canada (Zavala-Araiza et al., 2018)
Examples (multiple references within one parenthetical element):
… increasingly deeper waters (Davies et al., 2007; Waller et al., 2007; Nixon et al., 2009).
As Kirch (2000; 2007a) pointed out ….
Authors should appear in the reference list in the following format: Surname, Initial(s) without space or punctuation. Multiple authors should be separated by commas, with the last in the list followed by a period. For publications with a very large number of authors, please list all author names and avoid using "et al." Organizations (governmental departments, academic societies, research institutes) may also serve as authors.
Billings, SA, Hirmas, D, Sullivan, PL, Lehmeier, CA, Bagchi, S, Min Kyungjin, Brecheisen, Z, Hauser, E, Stair, R, Flournoy, R, Richter, D.
National Research Council.
Journal articles include both a title for the article and the journal in which it appears. Books and monographs have a title for the entire work, and may have chapter or section titles. In Elementa‘s citation-sequence system, journal article titles and book titles should follow the date of publication. Journal article titles should appear in sentence case, with only the first word of the title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, and acronyms capitalized. Book titles should appear in sentence case and set in italics.
Biological invasions: Prospects for slowing a major global change.
The sea can wash away all evils: modern marine pollution and the ancient cathartic ocean.
Many works appear in multiple editions. In these cases, indicate the edition after the title in Arabic ordinal numbers after the title and abbreviate “edition.”
Karihaloo, JL, Kumar, PA. 2009. Bt cotton in India – a status report. 2nd ed.
These are used to provide information on the type of content (e.g., editorial, dissertation, conference abstract, etc.) and the form of content, particularly for electronic content (dataset, Internet, Podcast, DVD, etc.).
Note: Medium designators are required when applicable; content-type designators are optional.
Both types of designator should be placed within square brackets within the period that closes the title. Except for proper nouns (e.g., Internet) and initialisms (e.g., CD-ROM) designators should not be capitalized.
Beollstorff, T. 2012. Why the AAA needs gold open access [editorial].
Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) [Internet].
Journal articles do not require inclusion of the name or location of the publisher; books require both. These elements should appear following the title, with sufficient geographical information to provide clarity. Publisher names can be abbreviated, following standard conventions.
UNEP-WCMC Ia. 2010. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ Press.
Karihaloo, JL, Kumar, PA. 2009. Bt cotton in India– a status report. 2nd ed. New Delhi, India: Asia-Pacific Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology.
All references must have a date of publication. For multiple years of publication, separate the first and last years by an en dash. In all cases, the publication date should appear after the author(s) and be closed by a period.
Seo, SN, Mendelsohn, R. 2007.
Volume and issue numbers are required for both journals and books, if available. For journals, the volume number should be set in bold type and the issue number in parentheses. For books, the volume number is preceded by “Vol.”, following the series title.
Nakagawa, T, Tarasov, PE, Nishida, K, Gotanda, K, Yasuda, Y. 2002. Quantitative pollen-based climate reconstruction in central Japan: application to surface and Late Quaternary spectra. Quat Sci Rev 21(18–19): 2099–2113.
Rayner, S, Malone, EL eds. 1998. Resources and technology. Devon, UK: Battelle. (Human choice and climate change series; vol. 2).
Inclusive page numbers must be given for all journal articles and book chapters. For journal articles, page numbers appear after the volume and issue. For book chapters, the chapter number and inclusive page numbers should be provided whether the author(s) of the book or author(s) of the chapter appear first.
Smith, KL, Ruhl, HA, Bett, BJ, Billett, DSM, Lampitt, RS, Kaufmann, RS. 2009. Climate, carbon cycling, and deep-ocean ecosystems. P Natl Acad Sci USA 106: 19211–19218.
Warrick, RA, Le Provost, C, Meier, MF, Oerlemans, J, Woodworth, PL eds. 1996. Chapter 7, Changes in sea level, in Climate change 1995: the science of climate change. Cambridge UK: Cambridge Univ Press: 359–406.
Electronic accessibility notes provide information necessary for accessing electronic documents and sources of information. An item’s Digital Object Identifier (DOI) should be included in references wherever possible. For other Internet resources, the Uniform Resource Locater (URL) and date the information was accessed must be included.
Lal, R. 2008. Sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in global carbon pools. Energ Environ Sci 1 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [Internet]. 2011. Vegetation Health Indices. Available at http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/emb/vci/VH/vh_ftp.php. Accessed June 8, 2011.
Author(s). Date. Article title. Journal Title volume(issue): pages. DOI.
Steffen, W, Crutzen, PJ, McNeill, JR. 2007. The Anthropocene: Are humans now overwhelming the great forces of Nature. Ambio 36(8): 614-621.
Author(s). Date. Title of the book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher: Extent. (Series). Notes.
Clarke, KR, Warwick, RM. 2001. Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. 2nd ed. Plymouth, UK: Plymouth Marine Laboratory.
Center for Strategic and International Studies. 2007. The age of consequences: the foreign policy and national security implications of global climate change. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Braun, C. 2012. The surface mass balance of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf and the Ward Hunt Ice Rise, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, in Copland, L, Mueller, DR eds., Arctic ice shelves and ice islands. The Netherlands: Springer.
Mohamed Salih, MA. 2013. Local climate change and society. Oxford, UK: Routledge. (Routledge advances in climate change research).
Author(s). Date. Title of dissertation or thesis [content designator]. Place of publication: Publisher: Extent. Notes.
Veijalainen, N. 2012. Estimation of climate change Impacts on hydrology and floods in finland [dissertation]. Helsinki, Finland: Aalto University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Available at http://lib.tkk.fi/Diss/2012/isbn9789526046143/isbn9789526046143.pdf. Accessed August 19, 2012.
Wilson, L. 2012. Attitudes towards ecosystem services in urban riparian parks [M.S. thesis]. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University, School of Sustainability. Available at http://repository.asu.edu/items/15134. Accessed February 10, 2013.
Author(s). Date. Title of report. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher: Extent. Report No.: Notes.
World Bank. 2008. Development and climate change: A strategic framework for the World Bank Group. New York: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / World Bank. Available at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTCC/Resources/407863-1219339233881/DCCSFTechnicalReport.pdf.
Rosegrant, MW. 2012. International model for policy analysis of agricultural commodities and trade (IMPACT). Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute. Available at http://www.ifpri.org/publication/international-model-policy-analysis-agricultural-commodities-and-trade-impact-1.
Author(s), compilers. Date. Title of bibliography [content designator]. Place of Publication: Publisher: Extent. Notes.
Gecy, R, Michael Furniss, M, compilers. 2009. Climate Change Resource Center bibliography. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. 1,800 citations on climate change and its effects. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/ccrc/bibliography/.
Climate Research Unit. 2011. Climate Change Knowledge Portal: Historical Data [dataset]. Washington, DC: World Bank. Microsoft Excel workbook (369.5 KB). Historical temperature and precipitation data aggregated from 2-degree gridded data to the country and basin levels. Available at http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/cckp_historical_data.
King, JC, Turner, J. 2007. Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology [eBook]. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK.
Steffen, W. 2010. The Anthropocene. TEDxCanberra. Available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ABZjlfhN0EQ.
Morgan, G. 2012. Wrapping our heads around geoengineering. Stanford, CA, Generation Anthropocene. Available at http://www.stanford.edu/group/anthropocene/cgi-bin/wordpress/?paged=2.
For manuscripts that have been accepted for publication but which have not yet appeared, the publication date should be given as “n.d.”, and a suitable indication of the manuscripts status should be made (e.g., “in press”). As a general rule, manuscripts that have been submitted but not yet accepted for publication should be referenced as personal communications (see below).
Vitousek PM, Chadwick OA, Hotchkiss SC, Ladefoged TN, Stevenson C. n.d. Farming the rock: A biogeochemical perspective on intensive agriculture in Polynesia. Journal of Polynesian Archaeology, in press.
Werner, B. 2012 Dec 5. Is Earth f**ked? Dynamical futility of global environmental management and possibilities for sustainability via direct action activism. American Geophyiscal Union 45th Annual Fall Meeting; San Francisco, CA.
References to personal communications should be placed within the running text of the article (not in the reference list) as a parenthetical reference, giving the nature and source of the information. Be sure to obtain permission from the person or organization cited.